How to Conduct Focus Groups

Conducting focus groups is a highly effective tool many researchers use to obtain qualitative data. Focus groups allow researchers to gain insights from a selection of individuals who offer up their experiences, feedback, or opinions on a particular topic.

Today, we will explore this qualitative research method in detail, including the advantages and limitations of using focus groups, best practices, challenges, beneficial tools, and more.

What are Focus Groups?

Focus groups are structured conversations that typically include 6-12 participants and a facilitator who guides the discussion. Focus groups also have some critical distinctions from traditional interviews worth mentioning.

Unlike interviews, focus groups aim to uncover shared opinions and experiences rather than individual ones. The group setting allows participants to bounce ideas off one another and explore topics more deeply. Instead of asking direct questions, the facilitator typically engages in more open-ended discussions to explore how each individual feels about a chosen topic.

This next article covers open-ended questions in great detail, including examples of open-ended questions and tips for phrasing these questions.

Benefits and Limitations of Conducting Focus Groups

Focus groups are generally seen as a highly effective way to gain qualitative data quickly.

Here are some potential benefits of using focus groups:

  • They allow researchers to understand the motivations behind people’s behaviors better—this can be particularly helpful for market research.
  • Group discussions often lead to more innovative ideas than individual interviews.
  • Focus groups also save both time and money for researchers gathering data—especially when they use QDA software and other research tools to help.

Despite their potential benefits, there are some limitations to consider when using focus groups as well:

  • Since the sample size in a focus group is usually small, it can be tough to draw general conclusions from these results.
  • Group conversations tend to be more interactive than interviews. As such, t1hey may not capture all of the information needed by a researcher.
  • Controlling who participates in these conversations and ensuring everyone is equally heard can be difficult.

Best Practices for Conducting Focus Groups

Now that we’ve discussed the advantages and disadvantages of using focus groups, let’s explore some best practices and tips for how to do focus groups to ensure the data collected is reliable and valid.

1. Determine your topic, research scope, and hypotheses

Start by defining the purpose of your focus group and choosing a topic. Then, create some guiding focus group questions to ensure you cover all the points you want during the discussion.

Next, you’ll want to determine the scope of your research.

This includes deciding what type of focus group participants you need, how many focus groups you’ll conduct, and where these conversations will occur. You should also create hypotheses that can be tested by data collected from the focus groups.

2. Select a moderator and recruit participants

Once you have a clear idea of what data needs to be collected, it’s time to select a moderator and recruit participants. When recruiting participants, you’ll want to find diverse individuals to provide meaningful insights but similar enough to have shared experiences.

3. Create your focus group questions

Before the discussion begins, create questions that will help draw out meaningful insights. Crafting effective open-ended questions is vital in this step. These should be specific enough to generate helpful responses while allowing participants to express their thoughts and opinions.

4. Host the focus group

Once you’ve recruited participants and created questions, it’s time to host the focus group. The moderator should begin by introducing each participant before moving into the conversation. Keep in mind, these conversations should be relatively unstructured and allow everyone to express their thoughts freely.

5. Collect and analyze data

During the focus group, taking thorough notes or recording audio is important. Then, once the conversation ends, you should review this material and look for patterns in the responses. Be sure to consider both individual comments and group dynamics when analyzing your results.

We discuss the top 10 free automatic transcription software options here.

Tips for Analyzing Data After Conducting Focus Groups

Here are some tips to help you make the most of your research and ensure it’s a successful focus group:

  • Gather all data related to the focus group, including participant comments and notes taken during the session.
  • Look for common trends or themes among participants’ responses.
  • Check for any biases in the conversation to ensure everyone gets the chance to speak freely.
  • Draw conclusions from your data analysis and consider how this ties into your original research question.
  • Use quantitative methods such as surveys or interviews to validate your findings if necessary.

Finally, be sure to document everything thoroughly so others can easily understand the results of your research. This includes sharing audio recordings or transcripts with stakeholders who couldn’t attend the focus group.

Conducting Focus Groups: FAQs

Next, let’s answer some of the most frequently asked questions about conducting focus groups:

What is a focus group, and what do they do?

Focus groups are small conversations between a moderator and a group of participants. They help businesses or researchers gain insights into customer opinions, preferences, or experiences with products and services, or to collect other data and feedback.

What is a focus group with example?

Let’s say a business is launching a new product and wants feedback from potential customers. 

They could create a focus group of people who fit the target audience and ask them questions about their thoughts on the product design, features, etc. Upon inviting these participants to speak freely, the business can gain vital feedback that can dictate their next moves and the overall success of the launch. 

What are the advantages and disadvantages of focus groups?

The primary advantage of focus groups is that they can provide valuable insights in relatively short periods of time. However, it’s important to note, due to the informality of these conversations, it can be tricky to draw concrete conclusions from them without additional research methods.

What do focus groups work best for?

Focus groups work best for gathering qualitative data, such as opinions, thoughts, and feelings. They can also help get a better understanding of customer behavior or preferences. However, they are not the best for gathering quantitative or statistical data.


Conducting focus groups provides researchers with several benefits and can be a powerful research tool.

Focus groups are flexible, accessible, and can provide valuable insights quickly. With the right moderator and participants, focus groups can be an effective way to gain meaningful feedback or data. Remember to document the conversation thoroughly and analyze the data carefully with software like LiGRE.

As effective as conducting focus groups can be, keep in mind this is just one of several qualitative research methods that might be useful to you. So, check back soon for parts two, three, and four of this series to learn more about these other methods.

Try LiGRE today for free to see what our QDA tools can do for you.


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